VINELAND, city in southern New Jersey, 30 miles (50 km) from Philadelphia. The Jewish community of Vineland dates back to the early 1880s, with the establishment of immigrant colonies outside of the city limits. Synagogues were prohibited within city limits until toward the end of the first decade of the 20th century. The first such colony was Alliance, founded in 1882 in Salem County by the Alliance Israélite Universelle (France) and the Baron de Hirsch Fund (Belgium), three miles out of Vineland, followed by others with biblical names like Carmel. In nearby Cape May County, the Baron de Hirsch Fund established Woodbine in 1891, which was incorporated by 1903 as an all-Jewish borough. Some settlers embraced the am olam ideology of return to the soil as a means of salvation for the oppressed Jews of Russia. Men like Moshe Herder, H.L. Sabsovich, Sidney Bailey, and Moses Bayuk envisioned in well-balanced rural communities the basis for creative life. Subsidies were provided by philanthropic organizations in Western Europe and the United States – Alliance Israélite Universelle, Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society and the Baron de Hirsch Fund – as well as American Jewish leaders such as Jacob Schiff and Myer S. Isaacs, who hoped to create viable communities on the principles of self-help within American society. In each colony the fabric of life developed, including at least Orthodox synagogues and religious schools, as well as an array of clubs, fraternal orders, and debating and athletic groups. An early necessity was manufacturing to supplement farm incomes. The soil was poor, the 10–15 acre lots inadequate; markets were distant, and the settlers untrained in agricultural methods. Subsistence depended on the sewing machine, especially in Carmel, Rosenhayn, Norma, and Brotmanville, as well as Woodbine, where industry was subsidized from the outset. Although the Jewish population grew slowly to about 3,500 in 1901, it dropped to 2,700 by 1919. To some extent this reflected growing American urbanization, as well as the second generation's struggle for better educational and economic opportunities. Among their sons who achieved prominence were Jacob G. Lipman, an agronomist and dean of Rutgers' College of Agriculture; Gilbert Seldes, author, critic, dean of the School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania; and Benjamin M. Golder, Philadelphia congressman. Some moved to New York or Philadelphia, but many settled in Vineland proper, operating stores or small factories. Arthur Goldhaft, a distinguished veterinarian, founded the Vineland Poultry Laboratories. During the 1960s, the Jewish community peaked at just over 10,000 people, with five synagogues in the city and another six in surrounding communities. The largest influx to the community was from several hundred survivors of the Nazi Holocaust, drawn to the area from large cities such as New York and Philadelphia with offers of assistance in the establishment of poultry farms and a quiet country life. These immigrants formed the Jewish Poultry Farmers' Association and a free loan society, as well as several diverse congregations. A Jewish day school, founded in 1953, supplemented the established congregational schools. Community life has included Zionist organizations, B'nai B'rith, Hadassah, Hebrew Women's Benevolent Society, Jewish War Veterans, and participation by Jews in all civic and political activities. The Jewish Community Council, which is today Jewish Federation of Cumberland County, was established in 1924, has been active in local, national and Israeli affairs, and has helped to maintain the community's vibrant Jewish life. Notable residents of national acclaim include Miles Lerman, founding chairman of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum; Ben Zion Leuchter and Magda Leuchter, a local newspaper publisher and founding chairman of The National Jewish Center for Learning and Leadership (CLAL); and Esther Raab, a tireless Holocaust survivor and educator, upon whose life are based the play Dear Esther and the film Escape from Sobibor. Samuel Gassel served as borough commissioner and mayor of the City of Vineland; I. Harry Levin as municipal judge in adjoining townships; Dr. Tevis Goldhaft as chairman of the Board of Education; and Stanley S. Brotman as presiding senior judge of the U.S. District Court. The population in 2005 was 1,800. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: P.R. Goldstein, Social Aspects of the Jewish Colonies of South Jersey (1912); A.D. Goldhaft, The Golden Egg (1957) J. Brandes, Immigrants to Freedom (1971). (Joseph Brandes / Kirk Wisemayer (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Vineland — Vineland, NJ U.S. city in New Jersey Population (2000): 56271 Housing Units (2000): 20958 Land area (2000): 68.689823 sq. miles (177.905818 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.285362 sq. miles (0.739084 sq. km) Total area (2000): 68.975185 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Vineland, MN — U.S. Census Designated Place in Minnesota Population (2000): 607 Housing Units (2000): 189 Land area (2000): 6.532505 sq. miles (16.919110 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.119072 sq. miles (0.308395 sq. km) Total area (2000): 6.651577 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Vineland, NJ — U.S. city in New Jersey Population (2000): 56271 Housing Units (2000): 20958 Land area (2000): 68.689823 sq. miles (177.905818 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.285362 sq. miles (0.739084 sq. km) Total area (2000): 68.975185 sq. miles (178.644902 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Vineland — est un roman de Thomas Pynchon publié en 1990. Il se déroule majoritairement en Californie durant les années 1960 et les années 1980. Il a reçu lors de sa sortie un accueil dithyrambique de Salman Rushdie. Portail de la littérature Ca …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vineland — (spr. wainländ), Stadt im nordamerikan. Staat New Jersey, mit Fabrikation von Glas, Schuhzeug, Obst und Weinhandel und (1900) 4370 Einw …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Vineland — [vīn′lənd] [after the vineyards there] city in S N.J.: pop. 56,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Vineland — Infobox Book | name = Vineland title orig = translator = image caption = 1997 Penguin Classics cover author = Thomas Pynchon illustrator = cover artist = country = United States language = English series = genre = Novel publisher = Little, Brown… …   Wikipedia

  • vineland — /vuyn land /, n. land particularly suited to the growing of vines. [VINE + LAND] * * * ▪ New Jersey, United States       city, Cumberland county, southern New Jersey, U.S, about 35 miles (56 km) south of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It lies along… …   Universalium

  • Vineland — /vuyn leuhnd/, n. 1. a city in S New Jersey. 53,753. 2. Vinland. * * * ▪ New Jersey, United States       city, Cumberland county, southern New Jersey, U.S, about 35 miles (56 km) south of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It lies along the Maurice… …   Universalium

  • Vineland — 1 Original name in latin Vineland Name in other language Vajnland, wynlnd, nywjrsy, Вайнланд, Вајнланд State code US Continent/City America/New York longitude 39.48623 latitude 75.02573 altitude 34 Population 60724 Date 2011 05 14 2 Original name …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

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